300-302 Cooper Street: Will the real John Smith please stand up?

Tags

, , , , , ,

According to the HPO structure survey form for the property, the Honorable Charles P. Stratton (1827-1884), first President Law Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Camden County (1872-1877) sold 300-302 Cooper Street to Mary Smith on March 6, 1875. Eight years later, Mary and John E. Smith sold one or both of the properties to William A. Davis, pharmacist and physician, who resided at 300 Cooper with his family until 1906. To date, no census or city directory data have been found indicating that Mary or John E. Smith ever resided at 300-302 Cooper Street during their ownership.

Clues to the identity of John E. and Mary Smith came from two historic maps housed at the Camden County Historical Society. In 1877, two years after Mary’s purchase, G.M. Hopkins’ City Atlas of Camden New Jersey depicts two wooden frame structures at the southeast corner of the intersection of North Third Street and Cooper Street labeled 302 and 304 Cooper Street. It is likely that the handsome brick twin houses that now stand at 300-302 were already built at the time of Davis’ purchase in 1883 since it is confirmed that the brick twins were present by 1902 and that the Davis family occupied 300 Cooper until 1906.

The Smiths may have purchased 300-302 Cooper as a development property. Historic census data and city directories suggest that the developer-owners may have been a local builder, John E. Smith, husband of Anna Smith, of 319 Walnut Street and Mary Smith, a female relative—perhaps his mother or sister. Directory and census entries include:

  • John E. Smith, carpenter 325 Walnut Street (1874)
  • John E. Smith, builder, 325 Walnut Street (1877)
  • John Smith, carpenter, 325 Walnut Street (1879)
  • John E. Smith, carpenter, 319 Walnut Street, husband of Anna (1880)
  • J. E. Smith, carpenter, 319 Walnut Street (1881)
  • John E. Smith, carpenter, 319 Walnut Street (1882)
  • John E. Smith, building inspector, 319 Walnut Street (1886)
  • John E. Smith, carpenter, 319 Walnut Street (1887)

Unfortunately, John and Mary Smith are rather common names—even in Camden in the 1880s—and additional research might indicate the owners were an entirely different John E. and Mary Smith.

Sources

Camden County Historical Society

Ancestry.com

G.M. Hopkins’ 1877 City Atlas of Camden New Jersey

G. Wm. Baist’s 1902 Property Atlas of the City of Camden New Jersey

George R. Prowell’s 1886 History of Camden County, New Jersey

318 Cooper Street

Using the URS Corp., “A Bright Pattern of Virtue and Economy” Archaeological Excavations report as a starting point for researching the property of 318 Cooper Street, I was successful in uncovering the names of several owners of the property in the early years of the nineteenth century.

Hanah Maskell, daughter of the prominent Thomas and Esther Maskell, owned the property located at 318 Cooper Street from 1811 until 1836, when she sold it to her brother-in-law Edward Smith for $2,000. The deed suggested that on the property there existed a brick house. Smith rented the house out to the family of George W. Helimbold, a 42 year old merchant. According to the Archaeological report, the house was rented out until Edward died in 1857 at which time it was inherrited by Smith’s daughter, Esther.

By paging through the city directories of Camden County, four names were listed at 312 Cooper Street in 1863. These names were Josiah Throne, Abel Reed, Watson Weetsall and Charles Bouge. Since Esther still owned the property at 312 Cooper Street, it can be assumed that these people were likely renters of the house located on the property.

In  1867 the property was sold to Thorwald Damborg. Damborg was an engineer and mechanical draughtsman who lived in Camden. He bought the property for $3,750 and the deed suggests that a two-story brick building was located on the property. I was able to trace Damborg at 312 Cooper Street until 1869 when the property was transferred to Margaret and James Snethen, Philadelphia residents who purchased the property for $6,250. Margaret Snethen owned the property until her death in 1876. The house was then sold to William Cady for $4,137 in 1877.

William Waters, a broom salesmen and grandson of William Cady, along with his wife Eunice Waters, and their children (presumably) Edgar, Lucy, and Thomas Waters would live at 318 Cooper Street until 1906.

According to the Camden City Directories, a man by the name of John Bonner lived at the property of 312 Cooper Street between 1906 and 1910, however, the USR Corp. Archaeological Report suggests that a man by the name of Joseph S. Jenkins rented the property during that same time period. I was unable to confirm Joseph Jenkins at this location in the Camden City Directories.

In 1911, Edwin Bleakly, a partner in a Camden based law firm, Bleakly & Stockwell (which would later gain new partner names), purchased the property located at 318 Cooper Street. Bleakly had the original structure removed and replaced with a house that cost $20,000 to build. In 1920, Bleakly moved into the new house with his wife, Ida, and his two daughters Edith and Helen. This family would continue to live at the 318 Cooper Street property until 1947.

Unfortunately, the city directories end and information on who lived at the property after 1947 is hard to obtain. Today, the property is occupied partly by a Rutgers University Dormitory.

Jacob Downs
Rutgers University- Camden

Affluent Lumber Merchants at 804 Cooper St.

Tags

, ,

David Baird Sr. passed on more than just his name to David Baird Jr.   My research into the residents of Camden’s 804 Cooper Street revealed an affluent family headed by David Baird Sr. and subsequently his son David Jr.  The family occupied the house from about 1892 until sometime in the early 1930’s.  David Sr. acquired the family’s wealth as a lumber merchant and established the David Baird Lumber Company, which was located at 425 N. Delaware in Camden.  The David Baird Lumber Company became a successful family business where David Sr. and his two sons worked.

804 Cooper Street was built around 1888 by real estate developer Edward N. Cohn.  The house had up to 12 residents and must have been sizable   Given the successful businesses of Cohn and Baird, 804 was presumably a very nice home.  It was at the southeast corner of Cooper and North 8th streets, which would technically place it outside the Cooper Street Historic District.  This leaves me to wonder why the Historic District boundary was placed at 7th Street.

Mr. Cohn, a co-founder of the Roberts & Cohn real estate company that was responsible for erecting numerous buildings throughout Camden, only occupied the home for about two years.  By 1892 the Camden city directory reveals that his widow, Adelia T. Cohn, and her domestic servant, Elizabeth Healy, lived in the house.  Elizabeth was far from the last servant to live in the house.  The 1900, 1910, and 1930 censuses revealed four servants living in the house each of those years, which spoke to the affluence of the Baird family.  Strangely, no record of the address is found in the 1920 census.

In addition to the widow Cohn and her servant, David Baird Sr. moved into 804 in 1892 from his home at 425 N. 4th Street, which was closer to his lumber business.  Baird lived in the house until his death in 1927 and was a prominent member of the community, serving as a sheriff and a United States Senator.  His eldest son, Irvine, lived in the house off and on with his wife May.  His younger son, David Jr., lived there from the time of his birth in 1882 until at least 1931.  By 1935 David Jr. and his wife, Frances, had moved to Delaware Township, New Jersey.  The Baird brothers worked with their father and David Jr. took over as General Manager of the David Baird Co. in 1929, after David Sr.’s death.

I have been unable to find any record of 804 Cooper St. after 1931 so I suspect it was torn down at some point soon thereafter.  The parking lots of the Environment Community Opportunity Charter School at 817 Carpenter Street and the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development at 800-840 Cooper Street cover where the house once stood.  I took a walk around these structure but there were no cornerstones that could have narrowed the window of time in which 804 was demolished.

Sources:

Camden County Historical Society

Ancestry.com

223 Cooper Street: From Families to Dormitories

Tags

, , , , ,

With its rich history, Camden New Jersey has a powerful story of success and decline.  Once populated by Native Americans Camden quickly became an epicenter for trade a growth.  When Europeans developed the area into a town it swiftly grew into a city.  Today, Cooper Street in downtown Camden is a historic district.  More in-depth research on what once was a home located on 223 Cooper Street will further the knowledge of Camden’s deep history.

The no longer standing 223 Cooper Street, was once the home of many families.  The first person to live in this dwelling was Charles Watson, found in the city directories at the Camden County Historical Society.  Charles Watson was born in Maine around 1839, according to Census data.  Although the directories of the city do not note a spouse of Watson until 1897, there is a marriage record of Charles and Amanda Watson in 1856.  Charles and Amanda had one child in 1867 named Emma Watson.  Charles and Amanda’s marriage ended due to death or other unknown reasons by 1876.  Charles remarried a woman named Hannah later that same year.  By 1896, Charles married for the third time a woman named Anna.  On all of these documents Hannah and Anna are both listed as the mother of Emma.  It is only on Emma’s birth record that Amanda is listed as her mother.

The Watson family also had three different domestic workers during their time at 223 Cooper Street.  In the 1880s the Watson’s enlisted the help of an English girl named Elizabeth Bell.  Following in Bell’s footsteps, Winnie Flynn worked for the family from 1891-1893.  The last servant was an Irish girl named Sarah Rafferty in the 1900s.  The three girls probably had similar duties with keeping house, cooking, and cleaning.  Not long after Sarah was hired, Charles passed away in 1904.  Leaving his wife, daughter, and possibly a nephew alone in the house, the remaining Watsons stayed in the house until 1909 when they sold 223 Cooper Street to the Woodward family.

The rest of 223 Cooper Street’s story has hole throughout the research as it was difficult to find information on when the families where in the house, how many people lived there, and what their jobs were.  Edward and Elvira Woodward had lived in Camden for quite some time before moving into 223 Cooper Street.  They had previously lived at 523 Linden Street since their marriage in 1876.  The Woodwards had one son, Edwin Woodward, who was born in 1880.  When Edward passed away in 1915, Elvira and her son remained in the house until 1923, when Elvira later moved from 223 Cooper Street to the Helene Apartments just down the street.

When Elvira Woodward moved, the Hughes family purchased the home.  The Hughes family consisted of Dr. Thomas E. Hughes, a physician, his wife, Justine, and their son, Thomas E. Jr.  Their son is only listed in one city directory dated 1931, listed as a student.  Dr. Hughes passed away in 1940; however Justine remained in the house until at least 1947, when the city directory ends.  Following the Hughes family, Joseph and Ester DeLuca moved into the home.  All that is known about this couple is that they passed away in their final home located in Clementon, New Jersey, just minutes from Camden.  By the 1950s, 223 Cooper Street was donated to Rutgers as a fraternity house for Kappa Sigma Upsilon.  Today, however, the house no longer stands.  In place of the once beautiful home are now dormitories for the University of Rutgers Camden, New Jersey students.

Sources:

Camden County Historical Society City Directories

Ancestry.com census information, marriage records, birth records and death records.

323 Cooper Street- A Place to Call Home

Tags

, , , , , , , ,

When I began my work on 323 Cooper Street I had no idea what to expect. Truthfully, I picked the house because I liked the architecture. The house, one of few Queen Anne architecture examples in Camden, was built in 1886 by Hazel & Hurst, a Philadelphia-based company. Joseph C. DeLa Cour, a well known drug manufacturer, had the house built adjoining his property at 321 Cooper.

323 Cooper Street, 2013

323 Cooper Street, 2013

The property was held by Elizabeth DeLa Cour until 1890, when it was sold by Edward F. Nivin Trustee to Edward Cohn, who quickly flipped the sale in five days time and sold 323 to John J. Burleigh and his wife, Anna. The Burleighs, both first-generation Irish immigrants to New Jersey, had five children when they moved to the DeLa Cour house. John’s aunt Maria Heighton also resided with the family. Anna and John went on to have three more children while at 323, bringing the total to eight: Margaret, Elizabeth, Charles, Isabelle, Helen, Paul, Dorothy, and Frances. John provided for his family through work as a secretary and manager at Camden Lighting and Heating Company. The immense damage to the 1890 census makes this decade blurry, but the 1900 census lists the family in Pennsauken with four servants: one white woman named Mary Elizabeth Haines, one black woman named Anna M. Giles, and two black men, Abraham F Still and George F. Rock. Further research might provide better insight into when Burleigh hired these servants and if they lived and worked in 323 Cooper. There also may be further evidence of tragedy in the home, as Anna is listed in the 1900 census as having borne nine children with eight living. There is no evidence of the child’s name, and I haven’t been able to locate any baptism records thus far.

The expanding Burleigh family left the house in 1898 , John J. selling to George Barrett, president of the Rilatt & Barrett Dry Dock Co. who occupied with his wife, Sarah, and their adult children Francis “Flora” and Frank. In 1900 the Camden City Directory listed a Floyd Barrett living at the property, but no census records have been found for him. He disappears by 1904. During Floyd’s stay, Francis (“Flora”), married Edward Middleton in 1902 and left her parents’ home.

Oddly, another Frank Barrett was listed at the property in 1911- a year-old child. The elder Frank moved to 919 North 7th street and younger Frank left simultaneously, leading me to believe he may have been Frank’s son. George and Sarah continued to live in 323 until 1922. In 1923 the property was vacant, but in 1924 a new family moved in.

Francis D. Weaver and his wife Katherine, along with Francis’ single sister, Annie (or Anna, according to some records), began to occupy the house. Francis, secretary & treasurer at City Line Brick and Lumber Co., is listed at 323 Cooper as late as 1937, but I have no evidence to show that Katherine or Annie was still living or occupying the home.

The search continues for death records, servant’s papers, and more!

Mikaela Maria
Rutgers University- Camden

Joseph Cades and the White Plague

While researching the Cades family of 300 Cooper Street, the absence of Aaron and Sadie’s oldest son, Joseph (born 1900), from the Camden City directories led me to some interesting questions and gloomy answers regarding Joseph’s situation. 

After 1910, Joseph and Aaron departed from Auburn, Arkansas and landed in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana. According to his draft registration card dated September 12, 1918, Joseph was an unemployed stenographer in Ouachita. The draft registrar described him as short and stocky with black hair and gray eyes. On Joseph’s draft registration card Aaron S. Cades of Louis Lane in the City of Monroe, Ouachita Parish, Louisiana was listed as his nearest relative.

While it is unclear whether or not Joseph was called up for active military duty during the final months of World War I, by 1920 his health was poor. A patient in the Camden County Sanatorium also known as the Sunny Rest Sanatorium at Ancora, Joseph was stricken with tuberculosis. During the 1920s tuberculosis—also known as the White Plague—was still a major public health issue. In 1920, Camden County saw 280 cases of tuberculosis and 212 deaths resulting in a staggering 73.35% fatality rate.  Because effective antibiotic treatments for tuberculosis were not developed until 1944, it is likely that Joseph eventually died from the disease. Joseph Cades appears conspicuously absent from city directories and census records that postdate 1920.

Of course, this brief sketch leaves several pointed questions unanswered. Did Joseph fall ill in Louisiana and seek treatment in New Jersey? Was he drafted and did he contract tuberculosis in the trenches of Europe? Or did Camden’s crowded boarding houses expose him to the pathogen after his and Aaron’s arrival? And was Aaron’s move to Camden motivated by commerce or concern for the health of his oldest son?

Sources

Camden County Historical Society

Ancestry.com

Wikipedia.com

New Jersey Department of Health. Forty-Fourth Annual Report of the Department of Health of the State of New Jersey, 1921. Trenton: State of New Jersey, 1921.

Cooper Street’s Jewish Residents: The Cades, 1924-1927

“Go West, young man”— a quote falsely credited to newsman Horace Greeley— captures the popular understanding of migration trends during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, that of successive waves of immigration to North America’s port cities followed by gradual but relentless occupation of the Nation’s seemingly limitless interior. Whatever truth to the understanding, by the middle nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the winds and tides had changed as the rise of industry in and around those same port cities recalled those same travelers.

One such émigré was Aaron S. Cades (1870-1927). Born in the Baltic Region of the Russian Empire—today the Republic of Lithuania—Cades voyaged to the United States at the age of eighteen where he married his Hungarian wife Sadie (née Greenstein) (b. 1882) in 1898. They bought a home in Bunch Creek, Oklahoma where he worked as a merchant and she as a furniture seller. In Oklahoma, Sadie bore him three sons: Joseph (b. 1900), David (b. 1902), and Edwin (b. 1907). By 1910, Aaron, Sadie, and their boys moved to Auburn, Arkansas where they lived with Sadie’s mother Pearl Greenstein (b. 1844). Owning their own home in Arkansas, Aaron must have achieved some success as a merchant in Auburn.  

However by 1920 Camden, New Jersey had lured Aaron from his dusty prairie home. The siren call of the growing city’s business opportunities and its thriving Jewish community likely drew him. In the first decade of the twentieth century Camden’s Jewish residents numbered over 800 and the city supported two congregations, Adath Israel (est. 1904) and Bnei Abraham (est. 1905). In Camden Aaron Cades boarded at The Penn apartment building at 301 North 3rd Street and worked as a merchandise jobber.

By 1921, Aaron’s wife and sons, David and Edwin, joined him in Camden. First they resided at 404 Federal Street where his grown sons established Cades Brothers jewelry store. By 1924, David and Edwin’s thriving jewelry business permitted them to buy their mother and father their own residence at 300 Cooper Street. Aaron lived with his wife at 300 Cooper Street for the next three years before passing away unexpectedly on December 14, 1927.

Sources

Camden County Historical Society

Ancestry.com

Szold, Henrietta (editor). The Jewish American Year Book, 5668. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America. 1907.

Building Lives at 427-29 Cooper Street

427 and 429 Cooper Street, at right this photograph taken c. 1916, show ornamentations of a front yard at 429, a porch added to the front of 427, and hitching posts at curbside. (Camden County Historical Society)

A Brief History of the Home of the Department of History
and Department of Religion and Philosophy at Rutgers-Camden

At the corner of Fifth and Cooper Streets, two large residences built in the 1880s represent the height of Camden’s nineteenth-century prosperity and the transition of a fashionable neighborhood following the 1926 completion of the first bridge across the Delaware River to Philadelphia. Anchoring a key intersection within the Cooper Street Historic District, these houses contribute to the National Register of Historic Places’ recognition of Cooper Street’s significance in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, “when industry, commerce, and agriculture combined to make this city the economic and urban center of Southern New Jersey.”  They demonstrate transitions from nineteenth-century trades, to real estate development, to the practice of medicine in the houses on Cooper Street.

Cooper Street’s role as the major route linking South Jersey to Philadelphia-bound ferries dates from the eighteenth century, but the north side of the street remained undeveloped farmland until the 1840s. Prior to construction of the present houses, earlier occupants of residential structures at 427 and 429 reflected the economy and opportunities available in Camden in the mid-nineteenth century.

For example, lumber merchant William Doughten and his family lived in an earlier house at 427 Cooper Street beginning in 1862. Census records indicate that the Doughten household included domestic servants in addition to William Doughten, his wife Abigail, two sons, and two daughters. The Doughtens retained ownership of the house as an investment property after the family moved elsewhere in Camden in the 1870s and 1880s.  Among the tenants were a dentist, Alphonso Irwin, who had his home and office at 427 from 1881 until 1885, when he purchased the house next door, 425 Cooper Street, which still stands.

An earlier structure also stood at the corner of Fifth and Cooper (429).  The owner, Lewis Wilkins, earned his living as operator of a livery stable on Front Street, a good location near the ferries that crossed to Philadelphia. Although Wilkins, his wife Rebecca, and their daughter did not experience prosperity equal to the Doughtens, they owned their home at 429 Cooper from 1860 until 1880, and city directories thereafter identified Lewis Wilkins as a “gentleman” retired from business.

Both properties changed ownership during the greatest takeoff of Camden’s population, which nearly tripled between 1880 and 1920, from about 41,000 to more than 116,000 people. Fittingly for a period of such growth, the new houses constructed at 427 and 429 Cooper Street both were built for the families of prominent real estate developers. Much larger and more attentive to architectural fashion than the houses they replaced, the new residences advertised their owners’ success and ambition in business.

The first of the two properties to change hands was 429, on the corner of Fifth and Cooper. Lewis Wilkins, the livery stable operator, sold his property in 1880 to Joseph J. Read, a beneficiary of the changing worlds of work and opportunity in the nineteenth century. Born in Camden in 1815, in his youth in South Philadelphia Read learned the craft of coopering—barrel-making—and he practiced this trade in Camden as late as the 1860s. But in the 1860s and 1870s Read also began to buy and renovate houses and at least one office building in Camden, and he amassed enough wealth to also invest in property in Philadelphia and Atlantic City. Established in the real estate business, the former cooper moved to Cooper Street. He had his new house at  429 Cooper Street built in the French-inspired Second Empire style, like the new City Hall under construction in Philadelphia.

Very popular in the United States during the 1860s and 1870s, Second Empire was no longer as favored by 1880; it was perhaps a choice influenced by the tastes of Read’s late first wife, who was French, or perhaps a tribute to her. For Read, the new house with the mansard roof, arched windows, and projected bays became the home of his second marriage, to Elizabeth Schellenger (in public records of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century also spelled Schellinger), the widow of a sea captain. Their extended household included Elizabeth’s son William Schellenger, a clerk, and later William’s wife Lillian and their son, Edward.

Architect’s plan for 427 Cooper Street.

Next door, at 427 Cooper Street, change came in 1889 when the Doughten family sold their former home and investment property to another real estate broker, James White, whose new house was designed to serve as both his office and residence for himself, his wife, and two daughters.  (Title to the property was registered in the name of James’s wife, Maggie, a common tactic for protecting the home from any failings or lawsuits against the business.)  The Whites engaged the Philadelphia architectural firm Moses & King to design a distinctive home, similar in scale to the house next door but jarringly different in style. Next to the Reads’ Second Empire residence rose a home that incorporated a strong statement of Richardsonian Romanesque style with a stone arched window on the first floor but also ornamental touches that could be described as Queen Anne, a style that gained in popularity in the United States following its appearance at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia—two architectural statements in one building, speaking to two purposes as home and office.  Moses & King were known for designing churches as well as residences, which may help to explain the stained glass installed over the front door.

The new houses at 427 and 429 Cooper Street remained home to the Whites, the Reads, and their extended families until the 1920s.  In the early twentieth century, both households included African American domestic servants—at 429 Cooper in 1900, Julia Burse, a 36-year-old widow originally from Delaware, and at 427 Cooper in 1920, a 70-year-old cook named Mary Taylor.  At 429 Cooper, the continuing history of the Read/Schellenger family entwined not only with real estate but also with the community of physicians with offices in other houses on Cooper Street.  Edward Schellenger, the grandson of Joseph Read’s second wife, became a physician and opened a medical office in his family’s home in 1894.  His son, also named Edward, also became a physician and based his practice at this address for a time in the 1940s (upon retirement, he donated the building to Rutgers). The house next door also became a medical office as well as a home in 1922 when the Whites sold to Dr. Oscar Grumbrecht and his wife, Mary (who held title to the property).

The Delaware River Bridge, later renamed the Benjamin Franklin Bridge. (PhillyHistory.org)

By the 1920s, suburbanization and the construction of the Delaware River Bridge—later  the renamed the Benjamin Franklin Bridge—were changing Camden, and so too the occupants and fates of the houses at 427 and 429 Cooper Street.  By the middle 1920s, as demolition made way for the bridge and the new Plaza Hotel signaled a more commercial future for Cooper Street, the Schellengers moved to the fashionable railroad suburb of Merchantville. They retained ownership of the 429 Cooper Street house, which was divided into multiple offices, apartments, and sometimes retail spaces, including a dress shop during the 1930s. Next door, the Grumbrechts also moved in the mid-1920s to another house on Cooper Street, and 427 was thereafter divided and rented to tenants. As Camden became a recorded-music mecca with the rise of RCA-Victor, the tenants included a World War I veteran named Edwin Wartman who lived at 427 Cooper from 1929 to 1931 while working as a Vitaphone recording system operator (and later a movie projectionist). During the Great Depression, 427 became a boarding house with boarders and lodgers including factory workers, waitresses, and a draftsman employed by the Works Progress Administration (WPA).

The houses at 427-29 Cooper Street are two of seventy-six “contributing” structures of the Cooper Street Historic District, which extends from Second to Seventh Streets. Following an inventory of historic structure by the City of Camden Bureau of Planning, the district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. The buildings, now joined as a single structure designated as 429 Cooper Street, gained new purposes in 2011 as the home of the Rutgers-Camden Department of History and the Department of Religion and Philosophy.

To view a timeline and list of occupants, link here [currently under construction – please check later!]:

427-429 Cooper Street on Dipity.

– Charlene Mires

Copyright 2012, Charlene Mires.  Cite as: Charlene Mires, “Building Lives at 427-29 Cooper Street,” http://publichistory.blogs.rutgers.edu/our-home-in-camden.  Please direct any comments or corrections to: cmires@camden.rutgers.edu.

Sources

Camden City Directories, 1840-1940, Camden County Historical Society.

Camden Historic Survey. Camden: City of Camden, Bureau of Planning, Office of Development, 1982.

Cammarota, Anne Marie. Pavements in the Garden: The Suburbanization of Southern New Jersey, Adjacent to the City of Philadelphia, 1769-Present. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2001.

Cohen, Phil. “Dr. Edward A.Y. Schellenger Sr.” http://www.dvrbs.com/People/CamdenPeople-DrEAYSchellengerSr.htm (viewed July 23, 2012).

“Cooper Street Historic District” National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form. Washington: National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1989.

Dorwart, Jeffery M. Camden County, New Jersey: The Making of a Metropolitan Community, 1926-2000. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2001.

U.S. Census, 1840-1930.